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Clwyd Metal Mines Survey


Halkyn lies in the community of Halkyn in the county of Flintshire. It is located at Ordnance Survey national grid reference SJ21006980. The mine is recorded in the CPAT Historic Environment Record as number 18091 and this number should be quoted in all correspondence.

Lead/Silver/Zinc (1876-1913)

Carboniferous Limestone with chert beds.

The area has been the target of a Derelict Land Reclamation Scheme in the 1970s proposed by Clwyd County Council in conjunction with the Wimpey Asphalt Quarries. Little surface evidence remains of the workings. The large shafts have been substantially capped with concrete and the area around them landscaped. Two large shafts remain fenced off SJ21056980 and SJ20856990. It is difficult to separate the earthwork shafts and mounds of the Halkyn Mine from the Deep Level Halkyn Mine, adjacent to it at SJ20857010. Smith (1921) records Lewis Shaft (used for raising ore) which now remains capped off with concret at SJ20907020, New Pant-y-gof Shaft and Ladder Shaft (used mainly for access and ventilation), as being worked by the Halkyn Mining Co Ltd, with no NGR but being in an area south of St Mary's Church, Halkyn. The mine was drained by the Halkyn Deep Level Tunnel on which a day level was begun in 1818 and driven in from a stream at Bryn-moel, about 150yds below Nant Mill. In 1875, a new company was formed, The Halkyn District Mines Drainage Company Ltd, to extend the level. An Act of Parliament enabled them to levy a tax on the various mines that benefitted. The company extended the level along the Deep Level Lode southwards to facillitate drainage of the North Hendre Mines and Rhosesmor. The Tunnel eventually continued to Llyn-y-pandy, with several small branches off it. A shaft now capped with a cage at SJ21107015 lies to the north-east of the lower working area, which surrounds the reservoir at SJ21206985. The mine was incorporated into the workings of the Halkyn District United Mines in 1928.

A narrow guage railway transported materials on the surface within the sett. The underground diesel railway of the Halkyn District United Mines served the 20th century sett.

A large reservoir still holds water at SJ21206980. Its dam wall and evidence of a sluice remain as earthworks at its south-east end. It lies within an area of wasteground, where all other evidence of processing has been destroyed. The reservoir lies downhill of the mine area, which appears to be directly to the east of the Halkyn-Rhosesmor road. The working areas seem to fall downhill and eastwards from the roadside. Large areas of cleared waste are enclosed within earthwork banks and drainage cuts. To the north-east of the reservoir, a very large area of bulldozed waste lies around a dried-up pool (SJ21357005), to the south of the capped shaft at SJ21107015.

Smith (1921) records the ores being dealt with at a concentration-plant near Lewis Shaft. The details refer to the early 20th century procedure: 'Ore is crushed with manganese steel jaws to fragments 8mm or less, this being the size of the largest jig-mesh. It is then sorted by trommels and water classifiers and passed into jigs. Elevator buckets used for re-crushing are also of manganese steel. At the new building the grades obtained from the jigs are mixed and recrushed, put through rollers and again through trommels and water classifiers....further separation of slimes is effected by round buddles.....'. The sieved galena from the Pantygof vein, which contained no fluorspar was sent to the Potteries for glazing. The mixed grades were sent to Purex Ltd, of Greenford, Middlesex for smelting. Galena was sent to Parker & Co. of Bagillt and to Messrs Quirk, Barton and Burns of St Helens. In 1932 a new mill was erected at the Pen-y-bryn Shaft (SJ20807010) by the Halkyn District United Mines Company to serve the amalgamated mines within the group.

Other features
No evidence.

This HTML page is reproduced from the Powys and Clwyd Metal Mine Surveys which were undertaken between May 1992 and December 1993 by Mark Walters and Pat Frost of the Clwyd Powys Archaeological Trust with financial support from Powys County Council, Clwyd County Council and Cadw: Welsh Historic Monuments. Further information about this site is available in CPAT's Regional Historic Environment Record.
Page produced by Rachel Stebbings and Chris Martin.

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