Clwyd Metal Mines Survey
lies in the community of Gwernaffield in the county of Flintshire. It is located at Ordnance Survey national grid reference SJ20046410.
The mine is recorded in the CPAT Historic Environment Record as number 103203 and this number should be quoted in all correspondence.
Lead/Silver/Zinc (Early 18th century-1912)
The Pantybuarth Vein ran parallel to but south of the Bwlchyddaufryn Vein in Carboniferous Limestone, running eastwards out to beds of the Cefn-y-Fedw Sandstone. The vein is crossed by several north and south faults.
Documentary evidence suggests very early workings on the Pantybuarth Vein, certainly the Lords of Mold had taken out leases on the mines of Mold Mountain from 1718. In 1738 a drainage level for the vein was opened up beside the River Alun at SJ18906430
(Williams, 1987), being to the south-west of Pen-y-sarn.
Only shaft and spoil mound evidence remain of this large mine, and the dressing and processing plant. Possibly the easternmost shaft of the Pantybuarth Mine remains just to the north-east of Pant-glas wood at SJ20996410. A Shaft and spoil mound remain at
SJ208062415. A possible horse whim is located at SJ20486407 with adjacent shaft, alongside the original mine buildings. The site of Engine Shaft and Goodwins Shaft are on the area now occupied by industrial buildings at SJ20406405.
The NGR for the mine itself in Burt et al (1992) is now an area partly taken over by the Golf Club, part housing and some industrial units. To the south, the land is owned by Cefn Mawr Quarry.
A single shaft and mound remain at SJ20406390 and the shaft and mound on golf course at SJ20016409 is possibly Mosley Shaft. Trevethen Shaft is located 100yds west of Park Farm at SJ20006405, in dense undergrowth. A shaft mound can be located on yhe golf
course at SJ19896435 and two capped shafts remain at SJ19836420 and SJ19746420. Three shafts run parallel to the road at SJ19606402, SJ19706401 and SJ19806505.
The area alongside the road, south of the golf course and Park Farm at SJ19806390 belongs to Cefn Mawr Quarry. The earthwork remains may relate to quarrying.
Shafts documented along the lode are Cefn-Bychan to the extreme west, Trevethen, Flat Rod Shaft, Derby and Rowlands as early twentieth century shafts, cutting into old workings, Goodwin's, Moseley's, Engine Shaft and Ellis's.
Early reference to sources of power for the mine, record a Newcomen engine working on the site in 1750. The engine is illustrated on a section of the mine on a map deposited in Hawarden County Record Office (D/KK/307).
The later shafts, Derby and Rowland would presumably be engine shafts, but no archaeologacal evidence remains.
In 1827, a 36in. pumping engine was in use at Engine Shaft (Williams 1987).
The OS 1912 edition 1:2500 map shows an engine house and adjoining chimney at Engine Shaft. A horse whim was in use at Mosley's Shaft.
Two reservoirs served the dressing floor area.
The Zinc ore raised from 1897-1906 was dressed by Brunner Monds at a plant situated near the Engine Shaft. The process of dressing was the same as that employed by the Mount Halkyn mine, where the ore was similar. The ore was carried by tractor to Mold
and Bagillt and sold direct to smelters (Smith 1921). Literary evidence also suggests that the processing plant at Pantybuarth was also used by other mines in the area.
Industrial buildings at SJ20406450 occupy the former dressing floor area. The OS 1912 edition 1:2500 map shows the Brunner Monds on this site.
A 19th century wall revetment runs along the roadside forming a boundary for the land owned by Cefn Mawr Quarry. At approx 5m long it runs east-west uphill and remains from 3-4m height. It forms a platform about 10m long with returning walls lost in the
thickets it borders. The visible roadside wall of good local stone contains two archways, now blocked up with stone.
To the east of this higher platformed area, a low wall about 1m high continues, a much later edition. To the west a rougher stonework addition continues uphill. A series of five wooden lintels, which do not appear to do any purpose, appear in this section
approx 1m. long and 4in deep.
An stone cottage at SJ20486407 was the site of the mine office.
This HTML page is reproduced from the Powys and Clwyd Metal Mine Surveys which were undertaken between May 1992 and December 1993 by Mark Walters and Pat Frost of the Clwyd Powys Archaeological Trust with financial support from Powys County Council, Clwyd County Council and Cadw: Welsh Historic Monuments. Further information about this site is available in CPAT's Regional Historic Environment Record.
Page produced by Rachel Stebbings and Chris Martin.
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